Although it has been over 20 years of Information Systems is known in Indonesia, the implementation in government offices (both central and local levels) is still relatively low compared to the private sector. This was due in addition to the presence of obstacles in the bureaucracy, ie starting from the law, policy and regional centers, to the organization and work that is not easy to be modified or enhanced, as well as limitations on government offices to encourage the implementation of information systems in accordance with the limits which exists.

Unlike the situation in government offices, the implementation of information systems in the private sector does not have a significant obstacle, making it easier to make adjustments in the use of information systems. For the private sector, information systems and business process reengineering is used to find the optimal solution in improving the efficiency and quality of work.

Based on this experience and observations, the low implementation of information systems in government offices due among others:
• the absence of a working unit in a government office that is structurally responsible in the construction and development of information systems;
• limitations in the control of information systems coped with a solution that 'IT oriented' resulting in the development of the islands of information systems;
• developing information system design in partial accordance with the needs of each entity government office (work unit), so it is difficult to integrate;
• information system implemented independently in each work unit in the absence of coordination between units of information systems work, including building information that is not the responsibility of the work unit system builders;
• Data and information are made and are beyond the authority / duties of a work unit / agency can not guarantee the accuracy and appropriateness of responsibility, so that will be a high-risk area;
• cultural awakening has not worked with a pattern of mutually terintegrsi in public institutions;
• limited capacity of human resources for the management of information systems.

Implementation of information systems in government offices may be held if:
• there is a process of openness as well as the management of data and information that is orderly and planned;
• bureaucracy no longer be an obstacle;
• development of an information system is returned to the duties of each organizational unit of government;
• need to be made a strategy and supporting policies that information systems can be harmonized with the existing bureaucracy in the private sector;
• need to increase human resources;
• the need for change management in government office environment.

Change Management E-Government

one of the problems faced in the construction and development of e-government is the human resource. When speaking of e-government, there are two main activities carried out is to build back office in this building information systems and build the front office by utilizing information and communication technology.

If seen the conditions that exist today in a number of government offices, both central and local, human resource background in information technology and communications relatively still inadequate, so we need a change management effort, better known as change management.

The background of the need for change management are:
• Globalization is a phenomenon in which the countries in the world, directly or indirectly expect the occurrence of an interaction between people are much more effective and efficient than the previous times (Douglas, 2001)

• Three types of changes:
- Continuous Improvement - changes made slowly and continuously, which results in the form of incremental performance improvement;
- Leapfrogging - changes made gradually by following a certain period, which resulted in significant performance improvements in certain sectors;
- Reengineering - changes made occasional but able to produce a significant performance improvement.

In the terms of changes that need to be done, there are some things that must be addressed to change the existing conditions into the desired conditions, namely:
• rules or policies;
• human resource and workplace culture;
• the process and performance of an office;
• products;
• organizational structure;
• technology.

For the above necessary institutional development through communication, education and training, participation, and commitment.

Some steps change management efforts of e-government, namely:

  1. trying to understand why the resistance arises. This analysis is extremely important to find the cause and root of the problem;
  2. invites stakeholders of e-government projects - especially potential direct users or user - to jointly sit in planning-related projects. It is a good thing to do considering that they are the future will benefit from the implementation of e-government;
  3. to be consistent, continuous, and intense perform explanation to the public about what exactly is e-government, because it is a fact that is very foreign concept in layman that in fact is the majority of e-government project stakeholders;
  4. by organizing training for those who want or interested to know more about the concept and application of e-government;
  5. involve external parties such as expert consultants or experts in the field of e-government that has experience and high flying hours in the field of planning and development of e-government - to be a resource in an effort to evaluate and improve the performance of projects underway.

(Hadwi Soendjojo)